- All submissions can be made electronically via Elsevier's online submission system, EVISE.
- Submission of a manuscript to the Journal clearly implies commitment to publish in it. Articles previously published and those under consideration by another journal are unacceptable.
- If applicable, include written permission of authors(s) and publisher(s) to use any previously published material (figures, tables, or quotations of more than 100 words).
- Authors will be required to transfer the copyright of their accepted article to the publisher. Papers cannot be published until the copyright transfer form is received. This transfer will ensure the widest possible dissemination of information.
Preparation of Manuscript / Disk
Type the manuscript (typeface font: 12-point Times New Roman) on 8.5 x 11-inch (21.5 x 28 cm) white paper with 1" margins. Use double spacing throughout, including the reference section. Conciseness in writing is required. Do not repeat data (i.e., generally use either tabular or graphical presentation of a set of data, not both). Organize the manuscript in the order indicated below, with each component beginning on a separate page and with a running title and page number typed in the upper right-hand corner of each page. All submissions must have a main body with a minimum length of twenty-five double-spaced pages. This does not include tables, references, title page, abstract, etc.
Page 0 (do not paginate the title page) should include:
(a) the title of the article (80 spaces maximum);
(b) the authors’ full names without degrees;
(c) principal affiliation (department [if any], institution, city, and state or country where the work was done), indicating which authors are associated with which affiliations
(use a , b , c , d , etc.);
(d) the name, telephone and fax numbers, and E-mail address of the corresponding author.
* Please notify the editor of any change of contact information that occurs while an article is in the process of publication.
Please make sure that all major headings (level 1) are typed in the same font and style, so that it is apparent that they are major heads. Likewise, other descriptive subheadings, which may be used if appropriate, should be typed in the same font and style (e.g., all level 2 heads should appear the same, and be distinguishable from level 1 heads and level 3 heads, etc.), so that the manuscript is coded and typeset correctly.
Follow the Publication Manual of the American Psychological Association (6th edition, 2009, Washington, DC: APA) for style of specific elements in text.
Whole numbers from one to one hundred are to be spelled out, unless used with the word “percent,” contained within a direct quote, used to identify variables, or used in a list of more than three numbers or number ranges, in which one is over one hundred.
Use abbreviations that appear as word entries in Webster’s New Collegiate Dictionary. Use abbreviations for standard Latin terms, statistics, and reference terms in parenthetical material (e.g., i.e.,). Terms appearing frequently within a paper may be abbreviated, but should be spelled out at first mention, with the abbreviation following in parentheses.
The text of the article is to refer to itself as an article or study, but never as a paper (i.e., “This article measures…” rather than “This paper measures….”
Present/Past Tense :
It is incorrect to use the present tense when referring to a past study (e.g., “This study examined factors…” not “This study examines factors.”). The study has already been completed; thus, the information and results are in the past tense. It is acceptable to use the present tense when referring to results (i.e., “the results indicate…”) since these are present-day hypotheses that are being discussed in the present. Specific results, however, are written in the past tense. This rule applies when discussing an “article” as opposed to a “study.” The study examined, but the article (which is present now) examines.
Quotations should be checked for accuracy. Square brackets should be used to indicate insertions into the original text. Omissions from the quoted text should be marked by ellipses.
Type each table, double spaced, on a separate sheet of paper (not on disk) and place at the end of the manuscript following the references. If the table must exceed one typewritten page, duplicate all headings on the second sheet. Very wide tables are difficult and expensive to typeset and should be avoided by dividing the data into smaller tables. Every table should have a title, and every column in the table, including the left-hand column, should have an abbreviated heading. Define all abbreviations, and indicate the units of measurement for all values. Use only horizontal rules to separate sections. Explain all empty spaces or dashes. Indicate footnotes to the table with superscript letters (a, b, c, etc.) cited in alphabetical order as you read the table horizontally. Use *, **, ***, etc., for statistics in the table body and footnotes. If data from any other source, published or unpublished, are used, obtain permission for their use and cite the source in a footnote to the table. All tables must be cited in the text. Number tables in the order in which they are cited in the text. All data cited in the text should be checked carefully against the data in the tables to ensure that they correspond.
Legends should be typed double spaced and numbered with Arabic numerals corresponding to the illustrations. All figures must be cited in the text. Number figures in the order in which they are cited in the text. When symbols, arrows, numbers, or letters are used to identify parts of the illustration, each should be explained clearly in the legend. The legends should permit the figures to be understood without reference to the text. If the figure has been previously published, obtain permission for its use, and include a credit line.
Line diagrams should be produced on a high-resolution printer (600 dpi or greater) or in the form of glossy prints. Half-tone pictures should be supplied as original artwork or glossy, black-and-white 5 x 7-inch photographs in a protective envelope. Letters, numbers, and symbols should be clear throughout and should be large enough to remain legible if reduced for publication. Be sure that all spelling is correct, that there are no broken letters or uneven type, and that abbreviations used are consistent with those in the text. Figures should be identified on the reverse with figure number and author(s) name, and when necessary, the top should be clearly marked. Do not write directly on the back of the photographs. Do not trim, mount, clip, or staple the illustrations.
Acknowledgment of grant support, and/or individuals who were of direct help in the preparation of the paper should be placed directly after the conclusion of the article, before the Appendix or Reference list, under the title, “Acknowledgments.”
Notes will be called out in the text using sequential superscript numbers, and the corresponding footnotes will fall at the bottom of the page on which they are cited. Footnotes can be both Harvard style references (see below), and general information notes, and should be ordered in sequence, not separated out. General information notes should be kept to a minimum and used only for substantive observations.
Instructions will be supplied once a manuscript has been reviewed, revised, and accepted. Authors should observe the following criteria:
(a) An electronic copy should be sent when first submitting the paper for review.
(b) The software used must be specified, including which release (Microsoft Word is preferred).
(c) The computer used should be specified (either IBM-compatible PC or Apple Macintosh).
(d) The file should follow the general instructions on style and format, and in particular, the reference style of this journal as specified above.
(e) The electronic file should be double spaced and the wraparound end-of-line feature should be used (i.e., no returns at the end of each line). All textual elements should begin flush left, with no paragraph indents. Place two returns after every element such as title, headings, paragraphs, and figure legends.
(f) Automatic numbering or footnoting features must not be used.
(g) A backup copy for reference and safety should be maintained.
Citation / Reference Style
The Journal follows the guidelines of the Publication Manual of the American Psychological Association (6th edition, 2009, Washington, DC: APA). Use this manual while preparing your manuscript. The following are also useful for reference: Webster’s The New International or New Collegiate dictionaries (Merriam-Webster Inc., Springfield, MA) for spelling and hyphenation, and The Merriam-Webster Dictionary of English Usage for grammar (Merriam-Webster Inc., Springfield, MA ).
- List at the end of the article, follow the APA Publication Manual .
Identify all source references at the appropriate point in the text by the author/date system, and list the references at the end of the manuscript in alphabetical order, double spaced. All references that are cited in text must appear in the reference list. Conversely, all references that appear in the reference list must be cited in text. It is imperative that all information is accurate. Make certain that the text citation and reference list entry are identical in spelling and year (this includes the spelling of all authors’ names). Entries in the reference list should contain the following:
(a) all authors of the work, with surnames and initials (not full name);
(b) the year of publication;
(c) title of article, chapter, or book;
(d) facts of publication
for journals..... complete journal name, volume number, inclusive pages
for books..... city of publication and complete publisher’s name
for others..... consult the APA Manual :
Gunderson, M., Mayo, D. J., and Rhame, F. S. (1989). AIDS: Testing and privacy . Salt Lake City, UT: University of Utah Press.
Flanagan, J. C. (1964). The critical incident technique. Psychiatry Bulletin, 51 , 327-358.
Blumberg, M., and Langston, D. (1991). Mandatory HIV testing in criminal justice settings. Crime and Delinquency, 37 , 5-18.
Article in Edited Book :
Felkenes, G. (1992). Affirmative action: Concept, development, and legality. In G. Felkenes and P. Unsinger (Eds.), Diversity, affirmative action and law enforcement (pp. 129-146). Springfield, IL: Charles Thomas Publisher.
Steele, L. T. (1995). The standard of care: Police attitudes on hot pursuit policy . Unpublished master’s thesis, University of Maryland: College Park, MD.
Bureau of Census, U.S. Dept. of Commerce. (1992). The U.S. 1990 census of population: General population characteristics . Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office.
Clark, W. B., and Midanik, L. (1982). Alcohol use and alcohol problems among U.S. adults: Results of the 1979 national survey. In National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism (Ed.), Alcohol consumption and related problems (Alcohol and Health Monograph No. 1. DHHS Publication No. ADM 82-1190) (pp. 4-13). Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office.
then the reference will be called out in the text using sequential superscript numbers, and the corresponding footnotes will fall at the bottom of the page on which they are cited. Footnotes in this style of article can be both reference citations and general information footnotes, and should be ordered in sequence, not separated out. Reference footnotes will follow The Bluebook: A Uniform System of Citation, published by the Harvard Law Review , with one exception : set authors names in book citations cap/lowercase (not cap/small caps). Examples follow (for others, consult The Harvard Bluebook ):
H.L.A. Hart, The Concept of Law 119–21 (1961).
Carolyn Heilbrun&Judith Resnik , Convergences: Law, Literature, and Feminism , 99 Yale L.J. 1913, 1942 n. 122 (1990).
Article in Edited Book :
Reynolds Robertson&Francis R. Kirkham, Jurisdiction of the Supreme Court of the United States § 445 (Richard F. Wolfson&Philip B. Kurland eds., 2d ed. 1951).
All court cases, laws, and statutes will be cited using footnote format, even in articles that use the APA format for references. For references to legal cases in the text, the case name is followed by the source, which includes the volume, reporter, and page reference, and in the first reference only, the year, for example, Wood v. Ostrander (879 F.2d 583, 1989). Subsequent references to the case in the text should include the case name and the page reference in parentheses, for example, Wood v. Ostrander (584). The full case citation should be set as a numbered footnote typed at the bottom of the page of its first occurrence.
¹ Micallef v. Miehle Co ., 39 N.Y.2d 376, 348 N.E.2d 571, 384 N.Y.S.2d 115 (1976).
² Wood v. Ostrander , 879 F.2d 583 (9th Cir. 1989), cert. denied, 498 U.S. 938 (1990).
³ Cordero v. Coughlin , 607 F.Supp. 9 (S.D.N.Y. 1984).
4 Hillman v. Columbia County , 164 Wis.2d 376, 474 N.W.2d 913 (1991).
5 Judd v. Packard , No.S.87-1514, slip. Op. (D.C.Md. Sept. 24, 1987).
Reviews and Production Process
Manuscripts are examined by the Editor-in-Chief, members of the Editorial Advisory Board, and external reviewers. Decisions of the Editor-in-Chief are final. All material accepted for publication is subject to copyediting. Authors will receive page proofs of their articles before publication and should carefully proofread, check all editorial changes, and answer all queries at this point. Authors are responsible for the content of their articles. The editorial office of the Journal is not responsible for any final manuscript changes, as this is the responsibility of the authors. If author proofs are not promptly returned within 48 hours of receipt, this may delay timely publication of the article.
All information about the journal can be found on the World Wide Web: access under
Authors whose manuscripts have been accepted for publication in the Journal will be given access to Elsevier’s On-Line Author Status Information System (OASIS). They will receive a personal identification code together with the acknowledgment letter sent upon receipt of their manuscript. This code will grant them access to the OASIS site on the Internet, allowing them to track the status of their manuscript. Authors may also access Elsevier’s central Log-in Department E-mail address for any specific questions they may have regarding the publication of their manuscript.